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​Transcranial direct current stimulation​

Our tDCS services

At Mind Connections, our specialists utilise brain stimulation – or neurostimulation – to treat a wide range of neuropsychiatric conditions, including depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and chronic pain. In addition, it can also be used to treat symptoms associated with language disorders, movement disorders and impaired cognition.

What is Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) ?

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive and safe brain modulation technique that has shown promising therapeutic results in treating a variety of psychiatric disorders.

tDCS is a brain stimulation technique that uses a continuous, low-intensity unidirectional electrical current (typically 1.5–3 mA) delivered through electrodes placed on the scalp to modify brain activity. The aim is to alter cortical excitability and activity in key brain areas. It is thought to function by the depolarisation (less negative charge in cells) and hyperpolarisation (more positive charge) of cortical neurons.

The mechanisms of cortical modulation by tDCS may involve various activities in neuronal networks, such as increased glutamine and glutamate under the stimulating electrode, effects on the μ-opioid receptor and restoration of the defective intracortical inhibition.

TDCS transcranial electrical stimulator


tDCS is a neurostimulation technique that causes both immediate and long-term alterations in brain function. It is a portable and wearable brain stimulation method that uses a low electric current to deliver a positive (anodal) or negative (cathodal) current to a specific region of the scalp.

Individual parameters for tDCS are set based on a variety of factors. Your treating specialist will optimise your treatment by exacting:

  • stimulation site
  • frequency and spacing of treatment sessions
  • selecting the size of the electrode
  • selecting the number of electrodes
  • deciding stimulation intensity
  • duration and waveform

tDCS is generally administered for 20-30 minutes per session, with several treatment sessions scheduled each week for 2-6 weeks. Your treating specialist will advise you on the number of sessions and frequency/week.


Throughout the procedure, you are fully aware and conscious.


Evidence of effectiveness shows that tDCS is better suited for people suffering from non-treatment resistant depression. Recent randomised controlled studies of tDCS involving a placebo-control (sham stimulation) showed that tDCS has substantial efficacy in treating depression, particularly depression that is not highly treatment-resistant.

Your treating specialist will discuss with you anodal stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, given at low intensity (1–2 milliampere). Generally, the duration of treatment is for 20-30 minutes, daily during the week for 2 to 4 weeks.


Most ADHD medications have adverse effects with low efficacy, so roughly one-third do not react to them. tDCS shows to have promising therapeutic benefits on ADHD symptoms.

In the treatment of ADHD, anodal tDCS appears to be more successful than cathodal. tDCS can enhance inhibitory control and neuropsychological deficits such as inhibitory control (IC) and working memory (WM).

Your treating specialist will go through possible stimulation locations, including the frontal cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and/or right inferior frontal gyrus

Studies show that using tDCS to treat the negative symptoms and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and auditory verbal hallucinations achieved therapeutic improvements. However, to date, all studies have used relatively small samples (N≤30). Therefore, further research is needed in this field.

Patients who received tDCS regularly reported improved and more satisfying sleep patterns. The majority of hypnotics are addictive or habit-forming. Considering tDCS is non-invasive and non-addictive, it is becoming first-line therapy for sleep problems.

Neuropathic pain (NP) is one of the most common problems contributing to suffering and disability worldwide. Most patients who choose tDCS as a therapy method find benefits from brain stimulation. According to studies, the analgesic effects of tDCS might occur both during and beyond the time of stimulation.


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